The limits of Satan

Despite his ceaseless desire to gain everything and everyone to himself, and regardless of how much he hates this, Satan is always obliged “to apply to the Lord to ‘stretch forth his hand’ . . . [because] the devil knows that by himself he is able to do nothing, for he does not even exist by himself as a spirit” (Lossky, V. 1974. Dominion and kingship. In In the image and likeness of God, p. 217). In short, he can do nothing without God’s permission.