Deification of man in Christianity – 1 – What is deification? / On deification

Deification Front Cover

Note: As a public service for the people, poorly catechized Catholics, and those who may just want to know more about the subject topic, herewith are going to be presented the chapters of the small book Deification of Man in Christianity.

The first two chapters can be found below.


Deification is the attaining of likeness to God and union with Him so far as is possible (Dionysus the Aeropagite, EH 1.3, PG 3.376A).

God, you see, wants to make you a god, not by nature, of course, like the One whom He begot but by His gift and by adoption (Augustine of Hippo, Serm. 166.4).

Deification can be defined as “God’s perfect and full penetration of man” (Staniloae, 2002, p. 362). The deification or divinization of man is not “an identification with God; it is only an assimilation, a very eminent restoration of the original divine likeness . . . [whereby one] participates by grace in the perfections that God possesses by nature . . . The Spirit transforms the soul to the image of the Logos, the natural Son of God, thus making the Christian an adoptive child of God. Affecting, it seems, the very essence of the soul, this mysterious conformation is not of a moral nature only but of a physical nature; it is a veritable partaking of the divine nature and of the divine life” (Gross, 1938/2002, p. 272).

Deification is the “enhypostatic and direct illumination of which has no beginning but appears in those worthy as something exceeding their comprehension. It is indeed a mystical union with God beyond intellect and reason, in the age when creatures will no longer know corruption. Thanks to this union, the saints, observing the light of the hidden and more-than-ineffable glory, become themselves able to receive the blessed purity in company with celestial powers. Deification is also the invocation of the great God and Father, the symbol of the authentic and real adoption, according to the gift and grace of the Holy Spirit, thanks to the bestowal of which grace the saints become and will remain the sons of God” (Maximus the Confessor, Ad Th. 61, PG 90, 636C; Schol. 16, PG 90, 644C). Maximus (Chapt, 2.88) added that “The soul becomes god and rests from all its mental and physical works by participation in divine grace; at the same time all the natural operations of the body rest with it. They are deified along with the soul in proportion to its participation in the deification, to the extent that then only God will be visible, through the soul as well as through the body; the natural attributes are conquered by the overabundance of glory.”

Deification, then, is “both the light encountered (inasmuch as it is a visible apparition) and something that attaches to the person, becoming one with her and changing her. It is both God as other and God transforming the human person from within” (Williams, 1999, p. 105). Deification results in the theoria of the uncreated light (Lossky, 1967/1974), because its processes are directly related to theosis – the vision of the divine light (Lossky, 1944/1976, 1983).

Deification and Man

When Adam was first created, the Spirit of God clothe him in holiness and made him a perfect person. However, such perfection was not absolute but relative, in order that Adam and his descendants could “progress peacefully and rise up toward the perfect . . . to draw closer to the Unbegotten” (Irenaeus of Lyon, Adv. Haer. 3.23.5, [963]). It was progressive deification that was originally intended for mankind and presented to our first parent (Gross, 1938/2002; Symeon the New Theologian, 1994). But after Adam sinned (Gn 3:1-24), it was Christ, the new Adam, Who reopened the gate for the deification of mankind through the three spiritual stages of purification (of the heart), illumination (of the heart of the soul), and deification.


Is it not written in your Law: I said, “You are gods?” (Jn 10:34).

He has given us most great and precious promises: that by these you may be made partakers of the divine nature (2 P 1:4).

Two kinds of deification exist. The first kind refers to the “elevation of man to the highest level of his natural powers, or to the full realization of man . . . [when] the divine power of grace is active in him. [The second kind refers to the] progress which man makes beyond the limit of his natural powers, beyond the boundaries of his nature, to the divine and supernatural level” (Staniloae, 2002, p. 263). For man to pass from the first kind of deification, which is well-known, to the second kind that is rarely heard about these days in Western Christianity, a leap of grace occurs, because “man too works during the first stage, but during the second, only God” (p. 364).

Thomas Aquinas maintained that in the latter kind of deification, “the gift of grace surpasses every capability of created nature, since it is nothing short of a partaking of the divine nature, which exceeds every other nature . . . God alone should deify, bestowing a partaking of the divine nature by a participated likeness” (Summa Theol. 2.1:112.1). He added that “this name God is communicable, not in its whole signification, but in some part of it by way of similitude, so that those are called gods who share in divinity by likeness, according to the text ‘I have said, “You are gods” (Ps 82:6)'” (Resp. I.13,9).

Aquinas also declared that “Man’s happiness is twofold . . . One is proportionate to human nature . . . The other is a happiness surpassing man’s nature and which man can obtain by the power of God alone, by a kind of participation of the Godhead [ad quam homo sola divina virtute pervenire potest secundum quandam divinitatis participationem], about which it is written (2 P 1:4) that by Christ we are made partakers of the divine nature” (Resp. I-II.62,1).

In deification, “the Paraclete illuminates from on high the man who attains in prayer the stage which is superior to the highest natural possibilities and who is awaiting the promise of the Father; and by His revelation, ravishes him to contemplation of the light” (Gregory of Palamas, The Triads, II.3.33). Those who experience theoria arising from the process of deification see God in themselves as though they are looking into a mirror.

After purification and illumination, “God no longer comes to us as before without appearance and without image . . . He comes under a certain image and yet it is the image of God. [He] makes Himself seen in His simplicity, formed out of formless, incomprehensible, ineffable light . . . He makes Himself seen clearly, He is perfectly recognizable, He speaks and hears in a way that cannot be expressed. He Who is God by nature converses with those whom He has made gods by grace, as a friend converses with His friends, face to face. He loves His sons as a Father; He is loved by them beyond all measure. He becomes in them a wondrous knowledge; a dreadful hearing. They cannot speak of Him as they ought, nor can they any longer keep silence” (Symeon the New Theologian, Serm. 90).

The purified, therefore, “contemplate invisible things . . . they participate in the intelligible gift of the light of God in their impassable and immaterial intelligence” (Gregory of Palamas, The Triads, II.3.26).





Schism in the Catholic Church in America

Lightning Vatican

On the outside, everything seems fairly regular to the unknowing eye. On the inside, however, de facto schism is in full swing these days in the Catholic Church in the United States of America. This schism, which has now become pervasive and proven truly recalcitrant to reason, is being fuelled not by ‘leftie’ clerics who may have become apostate, as may appear prima facie, but by lay Catholics of a rather traditional and conservative stripe, who deliberately keep on refusing to accept that Pope Francis is the reigning Vicar of Christ, despite all public evidence to the contrary. Continue reading here.

The ecumenism of hate in the United States

Read this article just penned by Spadaro and Figueroa, and which has been released by La Civilta Cattolica. It is an excellent analysis of what is happening and spot on. I can personally attest to what the authors of this article describe.

Evangelical fundamentalism and Catholic integralism in the USA: A surprising ecumenism

Seventh chapter (2) – Who Are You? What is Your Faith?


Here is the second part of the seventh chapter of the book Who Are You? What is Your Faith? America’s 21st Century Alt-Right and Catholic Social Doctrine.

Chapter 7: The new American alt-right population / A presidency of hatred?

Seventh chapter (1) – Who Are You? What is Your Faith?


Here is the first part of the seventh chapter of the book Who Are You? What is Your Faith? America’s 21st Century Alt-Right and Catholic Social Doctrine. 

Chapter 7: America’s 21st century alt-right / Make America White again

Sixth chapter – Who Are You? What is Your Faith?


Here is the sixth chapter of the book Who Are You? What is Your Faith? America’s 21st Century Alt-Right and Catholic Social Doctrine.

Chapter 6: The first African American US President / Overt racism rises again

Fifth chapter – Who Are You? What is Your Faith?


Here is the fifth chapter of the book Who Are You? What is Your Faith? America’s 21st Century Alt-Right and Catholic Social Doctrine.

Chapter 5: The effects, types, forms, frequency and multidimensional results of racism

MY GUEST POST: Discerning icons – Good and bad

Seraphim of Sarov

In response to my post Icons as Resistance, one of the readers in these Woodlands asked for some guidance as to how – or rather, from where – one can find icons to acquire if one wishes to get a few for the home. In other words, which are good icons to get? And from which should one stay miles away?

I admit, this is a hot topic in this day and age of non-discrimination. It holds most true if one does not have thousands of dollars to shell out to acquire various icons written by known and reputable masters – or to settle a lawsuit alleging discrimination by having dared to prefer in public, in writing, some iconographers over others, without sufficient and documented ’empirical evidence.’ But since it has always been my fortune – or misfortune? – to not be tongue-tied regardless of whatever hat is worn at a specific point in time, I will answer the reader’s question as best I can. Continue reading here.

Fourth chapter – Who Are You? What is Your Faith?


Here is the fourth chapter from the book Who Are You? What is Your Faith? America’s 21st Century Alt-Right and Catholic Social Doctrine.

Chapter 4: State of the Nation in 2008 / Aftermath of 9/11 / Hate crimes and racial ridicule

Third chapter (2) – Who Are You? What is Your Faith?


Here is the section on covert racism from Chapter 3 of the book Who Are You? What is Your Faith? America’s 21st Century Alt-Right and Catholic Social Doctrine.

Chapter 3: Covert Racism

MY GUEST POST: Icons as Resistance


In times past, but not remote, icons were a strong part of the resistance in the Church against the iconoclasm and oppression du jour. They can still be used very effectively in this way.

The people would buy an icon (or more) from a master-iconographer or the advanced students in the master’s workshop, have it blessed in the appropriate manner and set it up with ceremony in their home. Those unable to afford an original icon would make sacrifices to buy one – that is how vital the icon was considered to be in regard to one’s relationship with God, one’s faith and the Christian spiritual journey. They would never dream of buying something plastic when this started to exist. Others would trade some of the tools they used in everyday life – for example, farmer’s tools – for a real icon until they could pay for it. Yet others would take lessons over a period of time in order to learn how to write an icon or two for themselves, which was cheaper in the long run than buying a single icon outright – in particular if one then managed to get set up writing icons for the whole neighborhood. Read the rest here.

Third chapter (1) – Who Are You? What is Your Faith?

Here are four parts of the third chapter of Who Are You? What is Your Faith? America’s 21st Century Alt-Right and Catholic Social Doctrine:

  1. Racism in the United States / The American Dilemma
  2. Building the New Empire
  3. Reactions to Overt Racism
  4. Outlawing Overt Racism



The 21st century church

MY GUEST POST: What is Truth? Icons Revealed


There exists the icon of the Holy Trinity by Saint Andrei Rublev; therefore, God exists (Saint Pavel Florenski).

In our 21st century Western world, base and over-saturated with materiality and sensuality – a growing wasteland that, for the most part, neither knows God, nor does it want to know God – icons are silent, but active, witnesses to the truth. They are an ever-present act of ‘being’ and defiance in the face of those who would eradicate the Face of God from His earth. Icons sing the songs of angels as they remain hung on walls, stuck on shelves or hidden in storage closets, and do not speak. They praise the Lord of hosts despite being unable to move. They testify without cease to the Divine Life even as they possess no life of their own. But as Pontius Pilate said, “What is truth?” (Jn 18:38).

Continue reading the rest here.